This forum article consists of commentaries-authored by Sumi Hagiwara, Maria S. Rivera Maulucci and Lizette Ramos-on the feature article by Virginia Jennings Bolshakova, Carla C. Johnson, and Charlene M. Czerniak. We reflect on a series of questions that take retrospective, introspective, and prospective views of self-efficacy in science education. We review selected studies that explore some of the historical developments and methodological approaches in the literature and examine a teacher-student self-efficacy system model that shows the ways in which teachers' and students' self-efficacy judgments are based upon multiple individual and shared components, such as identity and social interaction within the classroom and school. We close with a call for the design of measures of teacher-student self-efficacy systems, so that we can begin to tailor professional development experiences to the goals and motivations of individual and collective groups of teachers and students in ways that accommodate the unique cultural features of their classrooms and foster student self-efficacy.
- Self-efficacy system