Elemental iron in the presence of molecular oxygen has recently been demonstrated to partially oxidize organic compounds. An iron-mediated aeration (IMA) process, enhanced with hydrogen peroxide, is described. Mechanisms and treatment efficiencies of the process are investigated. Decomposition kinetics constants of phenol are compared with and without para-chlorobenzoic acid (pCBA), a radical scavenger, at neutral pH. All four operating factors significantly affected COD removal. At neutral pH and room temperature, 50% of the COD was removed within 9 hr due to both coagulation and oxidation. Coagulation is ascribed to formation of iron sludge as an oxidation product of elemental iron. Hydrogen peroxide-enhanced IMA is a promising technology in treatment of high strength organic wastewater. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the 231th ACS National Meeting (Atlanta, GA 3/26-30/2006).