Residential mobility and chronic disease among World Trade Center Health Registry enrollees, 2004–2016

Melanie Jacobson, Aldo Crossa, Sze Yan Liu, Sean Locke, Eugenie Poirot, Cheryl Stein, Sungwoo Lim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Residential mobility is hypothesized to impact health through changes to the built environment and disruptions in social networks, and may vary by neighborhood deprivation exposure. However, there are few longitudinal investigations of residential mobility in relation to health outcomes. This study examined enrollees from the World Trade Center Health Registry, a longitudinal cohort of first responders and community members in lower Manhattan on September 11, 2001. Enrollees who completed ≥2 health surveys between 2004 and 2016 and did not have diabetes (N = 44,089) or hypertension (N = 35,065) at baseline (i.e., 2004) were included. Using geocoded annual home addresses, residential mobility was examined using two indicators: moving frequency and displacement. Moving frequency was defined as the number of times someone was recorded as living in a different neighborhood; displacement as any moving to a more disadvantaged neighborhood. We fit adjusted Cox proportional hazards models with time-dependent exposures (moving frequency and displacement) and covariates to evaluate associations with incident diabetes and hypertension. From 2004 to 2016, the majority of enrollees never moved (54.5%); 6.5% moved ≥3 times. Those who moved ≥3 times had a similar hazard of diabetes (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.78; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.40, 1.53) and hypertension (HR = 0.99; 95% CI: 0.68, 1.43) compared with those who never moved. Similarly, displacement was not associated with diabetes or hypertension. Residential mobility was not associated with diabetes or hypertension among a cohort of primarily urban-dwelling adults.

Original languageEnglish
Article number102270
JournalHealth and Place
StatePublished - Jan 2020


  • Built environment
  • Chronic disease
  • Displacement
  • Gentrification
  • Residential mobility


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