Catalase-peroxidase (KatG) is essential in Mycobacterium tuberculosis for oxidative stress management and activation of the antitubercular pro-drug isoniazid. The role of a unique distal side adduct found in KatG enzymes, involving linked side chains of residues Met255, Tyr229, and Trp107 (MYW), in the unusual catalase activity of KatG is addressed here and in our companion paper (Suarez, J., Ranguelova, K., Jarzecki, A. A., Manzerova, J., Krymov, V., Zhao, X., Yu, S., Metlitsky, L., Gerfen, G. J., and Magliozzo, R. S. (2009) J. Biol. Chem. 284, in press). The KatG[W107F] mutant exhibited severely reduced catalase activity yet normal peroxidase activity, and as isolated contains more abundant 6-coordinate heme in high spin and low spin forms compared with the wild-type enzyme. Most interestingly, oxyferrous heme is also found in the purified enzyme. Oxyferrous KatG[W107F] was prepared by photolysis in air of the carbonyl enzyme or was generated using hydrogen peroxide decayed with a t1/2 of 2 days compared with 6 min for wild-type protein. The stability of oxyenyzme was modestly enhanced in KatG[Y229F] but was not affected in KatG[M255A]. Optical stopped-flow experiments showed rapid formation of Compound I in KatG[W107F] and facile formation of oxyferrous heme in the presence of micromolar hydrogen peroxide. An analysis of the relationships between catalase activity, stability of oxyferrous enzyme, and a proposed MYW adduct radical is presented. The loss of catalase function is assigned to the loss of the MYW adduct radical and structural changes that lead to greatly enhanced stability of oxyenzyme, an intermediate of the catalase cycle of native enzyme.