SAFE-MAC: Speed aware fairness enabled MAC protocol for vehicular ad-hoc networks

Md Abubakar Siddik, Shafika Showkat Moni, Mohammad Shah Alam, William A. Johnson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


Highly dynamic geographical topology, two-direction mobility, and varying traffic density can lead to fairness issues in Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs). The Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol plays a vital role in sharing the common wireless channel efficiently between vehicles in a VANET system. However, ensuring fairness between vehicles can be a challenge in designing MAC protocols for VANET systems. The existing protocol, IEEE 802.11 DCF, ensures that the packet transmission rate for a particular vehicle is directly proportional to the amount of time a vehicle spends within a service area, but it does not guarantee that faster vehicles will be able to send the minimum number of packets. Other existing MAC protocols based on IEEE 802.11 are able to provide a minimum amount of data transmission regardless of velocity, but are unable to provide an amount of data transmission that is more proportionate to the time a vehicle spends in the service area. To address the above limitations, we propose a Speed Aware Fairness Enabled MAC (SAFE-MAC) protocol that calculates the residence time of a vehicle in a service area by using mobility metrics such as position, direction, and speed to synthesize the transmission probability of each individual vehicle with respect to its residence time. This is achieved by dynamically altering the values of parameters such as minimum contention window, maximum backoff stage, and retransmission limit in the MAC protocol. We then develop an analytical model to compare the performance of our proposed protocol with contemporary MAC protocols. Numerical analysis results show that our proposed protocol significantly improves fairness among the speed-varying vehicles in VANET.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2405
JournalSensors (Switzerland)
Issue number10
StatePublished - 2 May 2019


  • Fairness
  • MAC protocol
  • Safety and non-safety applications
  • Vehicle to Infrastructure (V2I)
  • Vehicular Ad-hoc Network (VANET)


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