Single-atom Mn-embedded carbon nitride as highly efficient peroxymonosulfate catalyst for the harmful algal blooms control

Hangjun Zhang, Yunyi He, Mengfan He, Qiyue Yang, Guoyi Ding, Yuanshuai Mo, Yang Deng, Panpan Gao

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In recent years, water quality deterioration caused by harmful algal blooms (HABs) has become one of the global drinking water safety issues, and sulfate radical driven heterogeneous advanced oxidation technology has been widely used for algae removal. However, the shortages of low active site exposure, metal leaching, and secondary contamination limit its further application. Therefore, the single-atom Mn anchored on inorganic carbon nitride was constructed to enhance the oxidation and coagulation of algal cells while maintaining cell integrity in this study. The removal efficiency of Microcystis aeruginosa was as high as 100 % within 30 min under the optimal conditions of 400 mg/L single-atom Mn-embedded g-C3N4 (SA-MCN) and 0.32 mM peroxymonosulfate (PMS). Importantly, the K+ release, malondialdehyde concentration, floccules morphology and variation of algal organic matters further showed that the algal cells still maintained high integrity without severe rupture during the catalytic reaction. Furthermore, the catalytic mechanisms of algae removal by moderate oxidation and simultaneous coagulation in this system were explored by quenching experiments, EPR analysis, theoretical calculation, and Zeta potential. In brief, this study highlighted the single-atom heterogeneous catalyst with high-efficiency and environmental-friendliness in harmful algal blooms control.

Original languageEnglish
Article number170915
JournalScience of the Total Environment
StatePublished - 1 Apr 2024


  • Harmful algae
  • Moderate oxidation
  • Peroxymonosulfate activation
  • Simultaneous coagulation
  • Single-atom


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