Social, Emotional, and Academic Impact of Residual Speech Errors in School-Aged Children: A Survey Study

Elaine R. Hitchcock, Daphna Harel, Tara Mc Allister Byun

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

19 Scopus citations


Children with residual speech errors face an increased risk of social, emotional, and/or academic challenges relative to their peers with typical speech. Previous research has shown that the effects of speech sound disorder may persist into adulthood and span multiple domains of activity limitations and/or participation restrictions, as defined by the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health model. However, the nature and extent of these influences varies widely across children. This study aimed to expand the evidence base on the social, emotional, and academic impact of residual speech errors by collecting survey data from parents of children receiving treatment for /r/ misarticulation. By examining the relationship between an overall measure of impact (weighted summed score) and responses to 11 survey items, the present study offers preliminary suggestions for factors that could be considered when making decisions pertaining to treatment allocation in this population.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)283-294
Number of pages12
JournalSeminars in Speech and Language
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2015



  • Residual speech errors
  • rhotic sounds
  • socioemotional challenges
  • survey

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