Distributions of halogenated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in a two-source water distribution system (WDS) with enhanced chlorination were investigated. The WDS was divided into different sub-service areas based on different electrical conductivity of two water sources. Results clearly show that the principal halogenated DBPs were trihalomethanes (THMs) (5.06–82.69 μg/L), varying within the concentration range as 2–5 times as the levels of haloacetic acids (HAAs) (1.41–61.48 μg/L) and haloacetonitriles (HANs) (0.21–15.13 μg/L). Different water sources, treatment trains, and enhanced chlorination within the WDS had significant effects on seasonal and spatial variations of the DBP distributions over water conveyance. THM and HAA formation followed the sequence of summer > autumn > winter > spring. On the other hand, the DBP spatial distributions were visualized using the ArcGIS enabled Inverse distance weighting technique. The superposition of different DBP spatial distributions allowed for the identification of the high-risk THMs and HAAs areas based on the average values of THMs (27.49 μg/L) and HAAs (14.06 μg/L). Beyond the comprehensive analyses of DBP distribution in a municipal WDS, the project proposed and validated an innovative methodology to locate the DBP high-risk areas and to reveal the effects of different factors on DBPs distribution in a two-source WDS.
- Disinfection byproducts
- Drinking water
- Risk control
- Spatio-temporal variability
- Two-source water distribution system