Technology and equity in schooling: Deconstructing the digital divide

Mark Warschauer, Michele Knobel, Lee Ann Stone

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

240 Scopus citations


This qualitative study compared the availability of, access to, and use of new technologies in a group of low- and high-socioeconomic status (SES) California high schools. Although student-computer ratios in the schools were similar, the social contexts of computer use differed, with low-SES schools affected by uneven human support networks, irregular home access to computers by students, and pressure to raise school test scores while addressing the needs of large numbers of English learners. These differences were expressed within three main patterns of technology access and use, labeled performativity, workability, and complexity, each of which shaped schools' efforts to deploy new technologies for academic preparation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)562-588
Number of pages27
JournalEducational Policy
Issue number4
StatePublished - Sep 2004


  • Equity
  • Technology


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