The Cognitive Empowerment Scale: Multigroup Confirmatory Factor Analysis Among Youth of Color

David T. Lardier, Ijeoma Opara, Pauline Garcia-Reid, Robert J. Reid

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Empowerment is a higher order multilevel framework used to evaluate individuals, groups, organizations, and communities as they engage in the practice and execution of the participatory process. The cognitive component of psychological empowerment (PE) has been examined through the Cognitive Empowerment Scale (CES); however, this scale has yet to be specifically tested to assess differences between African American/Black and Hispanic/Latinx urban youth. This study tested the factor structure of the CES using Multigroup Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) through AMOS Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) Software among a sample of African American/Black and Hispanic/Latinx urban youth (N =383). Analyses also assessed the association intrapersonal PE and psychological sense of community (SOC) had with CE. Results support the multidimensionality of the CES as a measure of cognitive PE, with no significant differences noted between groups. Findings also contribute to the field of social work and encourage the promotion of youth-work that enables these young people to foster a critical read of their social world in order to build a path toward engaging in social change.

Original languageEnglish
JournalChild and Adolescent Social Work Journal
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 1 Jan 2020



  • Empowerment
  • Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis
  • Youth of color
  • cognitive empowerment

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