The contribution of atmospheric particulate matter to the formation of CX3R-type disinfection by-products in rainwater during chlorination

Mengtian Hou, Wenhai Chu, Feifei Wang, Yang Deng, Naiyun Gao, Di Zhang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

8 Scopus citations

Abstract

Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) can be scavenged by rainfall and contribute dissolved organic matter (DOM) to rainwater. Rainwater may serve as a part or the whole of drinking water sources, leading to the introduction of PM-derived DOM into drinking water. However, little information is available on the role of PM-derived DOM as a remarkable precursor of CX3R-type disinfection by-products (DBPs) in rainwater. In this study, samples were collected from ten occurrences of rainfall in Shanghai and batch experiments were executed to explore the contribution of PM-derived DOM to CX3R-type DBP formation in rainwater and to further understand some of unknowns regarding its characteristics. Results revealed that a part of PM was scavenged by rainfall and the scavenge performance was better for smaller PM. The formation potentials (FPs) of individual CX3R-type DBP were similar among size-isolated PM. TCM was predominant (around 0.5–4.5 μg-C/mg-C) and TCAA was the secondary (around 0.6–3.2 μg-C/mg-C) among all detectable CX3R-type DBPs. Based on the PM removal data and DBP FP results, the contribution of PM-derived DOM to CX3R-type DBP formation in rainwater was modeled. Furthermore, aromatic proteins and soluble microbial product-like compounds were found to be significant compositions, which were reported to be DBP precursors. And low molecular weight (< 10 kDa) DOM derived from total PM and rainwater exhibited higher CX3R-type DBP FPs. DOM fractions with higher SUVA254 and SUVA285 values gave relatively higher yields of CX3R-type DBPs, indicating that aromatic compounds played an important role in DBP formation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)531-540
Number of pages10
JournalWater Research
Volume145
DOIs
StatePublished - 15 Nov 2018

Keywords

  • CXR-type disinfection by-products
  • Chlorination
  • Disinfection
  • Drinking water
  • Particulate matter
  • Rainwater

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