The relationships among counselor-trainees' gender, cognitive development, and white racial identity: Implications for counselor training

Robbie J. Steward, Karyn J. Boatwright, Eric Sauer, Amanda Baden, James D. Jackson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

9 Scopus citations


In a study of 82 White counselor trainees enrolled in 3 graduate programs, gender and the lowest stage of cognitive development were found to significantly contribute to the variance in lower levels of the White racial identity. Male trainees who tended to think in dichotomous terms and look to authority to provide the correct answers tended to report attitudes about race reflected in lower levels of White racial identity. Significant relationship were not found between higher stages of cognitive development and higher levels of White racial identity. Implications for training are presented and discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)254-272
Number of pages19
JournalJournal of Multicultural Counseling and Development
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1 Jan 1998


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