The utility of the MMPI-2 criminal offender infrequency (Fc) scale in the detection of malingering in criminal defendants

Virginia Barber-Rioja, Tina M. Zottoli, L. Thomaskucharski, Scott Duncan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Recognizing that nonmalingering criminal subjects often elevate both the Infrequency (F) and Infrequency Psychopathology (Fp) scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory- 2 (MMPI-2), Megargee (2004) developed the Criminal Offender Infrequency (Fc) scale, which includes items infrequently endorsed by criminal offenders. This study compared MMPI-2 F, F(p), Fb and Fc elevations of criminal defendants who classified as malingering or not malingering using the Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms (SIRS). Results of Logistic Regression Analyses suggested that the Fc scale performed better than F(p) and Fb, and at least as good as F in the detection of malingering in this forensic sample. Sensitivity, Specificity, Positive and Negative Predictive Validity Values for F, Fp and Fc are provided.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)16-24
Number of pages9
JournalInternational Journal of Forensic Mental Health
Issue number1
StatePublished - 22 Jul 2009



  • Assessment of malingering
  • Criminal defendants
  • Fc (Criminal Offender Infrequency) scale
  • Malingering
  • MMPI-2

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