Purpose: In this article, the authors encapsulate discussions of the Language Work Group that took place as part of the Workshop in Plasticity/NeuroRehabilitation Research at the University of Florida in April 2005. Method: In this narrative review, they define neuroplasticity and review studies that demonstrate neural changes associated with aphasia recovery and treatment. The authors then summarize basic science evidence from animals, human cognition, and computational neuroscience that is relevant to aphasia treatment research. They then turn to the aphasia treatment literature in which evidence exists to support several of the neuroscience principles. Conclusion: Despite the extant aphasia treatment literature, many questions remain regarding how neuroscience principles can be manipulated to maximize aphasia recovery and treatment. They propose a framework, incorporating some of these principles, that may serve as a potential roadmap for future investigations of aphasia treatment and recovery. In addition to translational investigations from basic to clinical science, the authors propose several areas in which translation can occur from clinical to basic science to contribute to the fundamental knowledge base of neurorehabilitation. This article is intended to reinvigorate interest in delineating the factors influencing successful recovery from aphasia through basic, translational, and clinical research.