Turkish adaptation of the self-stigma of stuttering scale (4S): Study of validity and reliability (4S-TR)

Nurten Tiryaki, R. Sertan Özdemir, Çağdaş Karsan, Michael P. Boyle

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: This study aimed to adapt the Self-Stigma of Stuttering Scale (4S) into Turkish and evaluate its factor structure, reliability, and validity in Turkish culture. Methods: The original 4S scale was translated into Turkish (4S-TR) using a forward-backward translation technique and was administered to 350 adults who stutter (AWS). To discover latent variables evaluated on the scale, two-factor analyses were performed. Internal consistency and temporal stability were calculated to ensure reliability. Test-retest reliability correlation scores were calculated with multiple applications of the scale within about two weeks. To verify construct validity, participants also completed the Turkish versions of the Self-Esteem Rating Scale-Short Form (BSDÖ-KF) and the Satisfaction with Life Scale(YDÖ). Results: The explanatory factor analysis showed three factors explaining 74.76 % of the total variance. The findings were also validated by confirmatory factor analysis. High levels of internal consistency (r = .89) and test-retest reliability (r = .96) were obtained. In terms of construct validity, our findings revealed that self-stigma has a significant negative correlation with self-esteem (r = −.41) and life satisfaction (r = −.38) as was predicted. Conclusions: The findings demonstrate preliminary evidence that the 4S-TR is a viable and valid instrument for self-stigma evaluation in three domains (stigma awareness, stereotype agreement, and self-concurrence). The 4S-TR can be applied for research and clinical purposes in Turkish.

Original languageEnglish
Article number106020
JournalJournal of Fluency Disorders
StatePublished - Dec 2023


  • Assessment
  • Self-stigma
  • Stereotype
  • Stuttering


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