This study employed an intersectionality perspective to examine older Chinese female's perceived constraints to pleasure travel and how they negotiated through constraints while accounting for multiple intersected identities of age (older), gender (females), and race (Asian-Chinese). Results showed that eight types of constraints impact their travel behavior: "limited knowledge of tourism," "health and safety concerns," "culture shock," "lack of travel partners," "low quality service facilities," "limited availability of information," "negative reputation of tour guide," and "few employer-paid vacations." Study participants also discussed how they negotiated through constraints using strategies, i.e., "word-of-mouth advertising," "group travel with friends," "donkey travel," "finding partners through square dancing," "children's support," and "being motivated to taste organic foods and breath fresh air." The findings provided a glimpse into potential modifications to constraint theory and revealed how tourism marketers can target and serve older female tourists in China by providing opportunities for them to negotiate through constraints.
- Hierarchical Constraints Model
- Pleasure travel