Using dilemma protocol discussions in antiracist teacher preparation

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Teacher educators need tools to create generative and equitable spaces for their pre-service teachers (PSTs) to engage in critical conversations about racism, particularly in diverse contexts. This study considers the utility of dilemma protocol discussions as one such tool. Data include transcripts of class sessions and students’ written reflections collected across four semesters of a seminar course focused on developing antiracist teachers. While the dilemma protocol discussions did provide a way for PSTs to share in collaborative critical reflection, the facilitator needed to engage in racial prompting. The article concludes with implications for teacher educators.

Original languageEnglish
Article number104080
JournalTeaching and Teacher Education
StatePublished - May 2023


  • Antiracist education
  • Critical reflection
  • Dilemma protocol
  • Teacher education


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