Using mixed models to examine the factors associated with intimate partner violence among married women in Pakistan

Hassan Raza, Linda M. Baron Cortes, Brad van Eeden-Moorefield, Lyndal Khaw

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Currently, the rate of intimate partner violence (IPV) in Pakistan is 29%, which is likely an underestimate. This study used mixed models to examine the effects of women empowerment, women and husband's education, number of adult women in a household, number of children 5 or under in a household, and place of residence on physical violence and controlling behavior, controlling for women's current age and wealth status. Nationally representative data collected from 3,545 currently married women in the Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey (2012–2013) was used for the current study. Mixed models were estimated separately for physical violence and controlling behavior. Logistic regression was also used to conduct additional analyses. Results indicated that women and their husband's education, and number of adult women in a household were associated with a decrease in physical violence, whereas women's empowerment, and women and their husband's education were associated with a decrease in controlling behavior. The implications and limitations of the study are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)301-316
Number of pages16
JournalAggressive Behavior
Volume49
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - May 2023

Keywords

  • feminist theory
  • intimate partner violence
  • mixed models
  • women's empowerment

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