Purpose: To perform a face validity study of the Spanish version of the Lubben Social Network Scale (LSNS-6) among Mexican and Mexican-American older adults. Design and Methods: A cross-national qualitative descriptive approach, based on cognitive survey testing and cross-cultural equivalence analysis, was followed to assess the face validity of the Spanish version of the LSNS-6. Data were collected through 2 focus groups in Los Angeles (LA) and 4 in Mexico City (CDMX). Focus groups followed a semi-structured guide. Eligibility criteria included being 60 years and older, native Spanish speaking, and not suffering from significant cognitive impairments. Four initial focus groups were targeted at conducting a face validity assessment of the initial scale, which led to some modifications. The two remaining focus groups reassessed the face validity of the modified version of the Spanish LSNS-6. Results: 56 older adults participated in the focus groups yielding 152 pages of verbatim transcripts. Analysis of the transcripts identified relevant themes affecting how Mexican and Mexican American older adults understood the items from the LSNS-6 Spanish version, among them: labelling of family members and friends, notions of neighborhood, identifying and counting people, and understanding of “private matters”. This led to propose a modified Spanish version of the LSNS-6 following a name generating approach, as well as some language and instruction modifications. The face validity of the modified version suggested a better understanding. Implications: The study proposes that the LSNS-6 Spanish version needs to be adapted for its use among Mexican and Mexican American older adults, and we suggest a modified version. This potentially implies that social isolation may be more accurately measured in a vulnerable group of older adults. Further research is needed to ascertain the construct validity and psychometric properties of the modified version.
- Face validity
- Focus groups
- Mexican and Mexican-Americans
- Older adults
- Social isolation