Visuospatial perspective taking in people with Down syndrome

Arielle Hershkovich, Daria Lasc, Lauren Grove, Daniel Sullivan, Yingying Yang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Visuospatial perspective taking (VPT) refers to the process of mentally representing a viewpoint different from one's own. It is related to mental rotation and theory of mind and helps to support some complex spatial activities such as wayfinding. Despite research advances in spatial cognition, little is known about VPT in people with Down syndrome (DS). Here, we examined VPT in people with DS. A total of 38 individuals with DS (aged 12–25 years old) and nonverbal ability-matched typically developing (TD) children (aged 4–9 years old) participated. They completed two VPT tasks: the classic Piagetian Three Mountains Task and a modified version of the “Dog Task” (Newcombe & Huttenlocher, 1992). For both groups, the Three Mountains Task was more difficult than the Dog Task, implying the impact of task complexity on assessing VPT. However, the overall performance did not differ between the TD and DS groups in either VPT task. Implications of the results were discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Article number104565
JournalResearch in Developmental Disabilities
StatePublished - Aug 2023


  • Down syndrome
  • Egocentric
  • Reference frames
  • Three Mountains task
  • Visuospatial perspective taking


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